1. When an agency is formed by an agreement, the agent is deemed to have........................
2. Under the law of agency, the ratification of an agent's unauthorized acts has a retrospective effect. Which of the following cases establishes/upholds this principle?
3. For an agency by necessity or operation of law to exists, it must be impossible to communicate with the principal. Which of the following cases is the best authority for this principle?
4. In which of the following cases was the agent deemed to have express actual authority to act on behalf of the principal in the way the agent eventually acted?
5. Which of the following is an essential pre-requisite for an apparent authority?
6. Ireland v Livingston is authority for the proposition that if an agent reasonably interprets a principal's manifestations to mean one thing which the principal did not intend it to mean, the principal is bound or the agent will still be deemed to have acted within their scope of authority
7. In which of the following cases was a principal estopped from denying liability for the acts of an agent after the principal had represented to third parties that the agent had authority to act on behalf of the principal?
8. Keighley, Maxsted & Co v Durant is authority for?
9. Under which of the following circumstances will an agent's authority be said to be implied actual authority
10. In which case was it held that whilst modern agencies are usually founded on a contract between the principal and the agent, there is no necessity for such a contract to exist and the consent of the agent and principal is sufficient?
11. In which of the following cases was the principle of agency by necessity upheld
12. A principal cannot ratify an act which is void ab initio.
13. In which of the following cases was it stated that "It is trite law that an agent cannot ordinarily confer ostensible authority on himself. He cannot pull himself up by his own shoelaces"
14. Which of the following best captures the definition of ostensible or apparent authority?
15. Actual authority may be either express actual authority or .......................
16. Per Lord Denning in Hely-Hutchinson v Brayhead Ltd, ................................. when it is inferred from the conduct of the parties and the circumstances of the case.